Attention to detail is critical for success in the gluten-free lifestyle. It is not surprising considering lives are turned upside-down by something measured in parts per million [yes, parts per million].
Please keep an open mind about the information presented here. It can be hard to comprehend that "The Staff of Life" can make someone sick. Science proves it to be true for about 3 million with celiac disease and an estimated 17 million with gluten sensitivities; just in the USA alone.
In this guide, you'll find information on gluten, how to eliminate gluten cross-contact, several recipes for gluten-free hosts, and links to commercially available gluten-free hosts.
If you have questions or desire additional help in instituting a gluten-free communion in your house of worship, please reach out to us.
Alan & Peggy Klapperich
Gluten Intolerance Group of East Central Wisconsin
It should be no surprise that attention to detail increases our chances of success in the gluten-free lifestyle. After all, something measured in parts per million rearranges our lives. Talk about little things making big things happen. Coach Wooden’s words take on a whole new meaning for those with a gluten-related disorder.
Knowing what's in our food is probably one of the most important details. President Theodore Roosevelt signed into law the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. Known as the Wiley Act, it gave the federal government the power deem a food “misbranded” if ingredients were “false or misleading,” or deemed “adulterated” if it contained ingredients harmful to health. Sadly, it would take nearly a century before the presence of food allergens would be recognized. A decade later, gluten-free regulations finally make it on the books.
The Protection Agencies
Only a few different governmental agencies regulate food safety. In this article, we’ll be discussing the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA). The US Treasury’s Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulates beverage alcohol [as in gluten-free beer]. Sorry beer lovers, we won’t be getting into those regulations in this article.
FDA vs. USDA
The FDA regulates most packaged foods we see on the store shelves. The USDA regulates meat, poultry and egg products, and mixed food products that contain more than three percent raw meat or two percent or more cooked meat or poultry (e.g., soups, chilis, frozen entrees).
While USDA regulated products are encouraged to follow FDA regulations, it is not required. [This is valuable information to know when it comes to reading ingredient lists. More on this later.]
Estimates show that 80% to 90% of USDA products voluntarily comply. If you see a “Contains” statement or other indication of a USDA product, major food allergen will be plainly listed.
FDA & the Top 8 Food Allergens
The FDA’s Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA) requires food labels to clearly identify the food source names of all major food allergens used to make the food. They must use the common or usual name of an ingredient [e.g., Modified Food Starch (wheat)} or use a “Contains” statement next to the ingredient list. [e.g., Contains Wheat, and Milk]
What are the major allergens as defined by the FDA?
- Fish (bass, flounder, cod)
- Crustacean shellfish (crab, lobster, shrimp)
- Tree nuts (almonds, walnuts, pecans)
- Wheat (including all types: durum, spelt, emmer, farina, farro, einkorn)
Source FDA: http://bit.ly/FDA-Big8
You’ll notice the Top 8 list above only includes wheat. It does not include gluten-containing ingredients barley (malt), rye, or oats*. Fortunately, barley is most commonly listed as “barley," "barley malt," or simply “malt”. Rye is rarely used in a form other than flour and would appear in the ingredient list.
*Oats (and products that contain them) that are not explicitly certified or labeled gluten-free are off-limits to anyone following a gluten-free diet. They are a high-risk ingredient because they are exposed to substantial amounts of gluten via cross-contact from field to packagings. Oats require additional knowledge and careful consideration.
The Ingredient Label
The ingredient label is your frontline defense in determining the gluten-free status of a product. An important fact to know: FALCPA labeling regulations do not apply to the potential or inadvertent presence of food allergens resulting from cross contact. Cross-contamination of a food or ingredient can occur at harvest, transport, manufacturing, or packaging. Calling the manufacturer may be required not only for ingredient clarification but also to determine manufacturing practices.
Cross-contact and Good Manufacturing Practices
Manufacturers are encouraged [not required] to follow Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP). Part of CGMP means developing and executing food allergen control plans. The plan must address six elements: training of processing and supervisory personnel, segregation of food allergens during storage and handling, validated cleaning procedures for food contact equipment, prevention of cross-contact during processing, product label review and label usage and control, and a supplier control program for ingredients and labels.
Voluntary Allergen Advisory Statements
Gluten-free experts and third-party testing tell us Food Allergen Advisory statements are not useful in determining the gluten-free status of a product.
You may find a product labeled “Gluten-Free and/or Wheat-Free” or even bears a GFCO gluten-free certification logo that has a Food Allergen Advisory statement that includes wheat. Yes, this product complies with current FALCPA labeling laws.
For products not certified gluten-free, call the manufacturer to ask questions. Ask about the facilities, the production lines, and their policies, procedures for allergen handling, and testing protocols. If they do not answer the questions to your satisfaction, find another manufacturer with a similar product that does meet your needs.
The Definition of Gluten-Free
As we discussed above, FALCPA does not directly address gluten. Before the FDA could create regulations regarding “gluten-free,” they needed to define what “gluten-free” means. It took ten years for the definition to finalize, but the voluntary gluten-free labeling regulation went into effect August 5th, 2014.
The FDA’s definition of “gluten-free,” “no gluten,” “free of gluten,” or “without gluten” is as follows:
“…the food either is inherently gluten free; or does not contain an ingredient that is: 1) a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); 2) derived from a gluten-containing grain that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or 3) derived from a gluten-containing grain that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food. Also, any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food must be less than 20 ppm.”
Notice the last sentence of the definition: "Also, any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food must be less than 20 ppm.” This means cross-contact.
I hear you…
“Whoa, this is confusing and complicated. Isn't there an App?"
Websites, published lists, and apps that report a product's gluten-free status are excellent tools to help narrow down product selection. Please do not use them as the sole means to determine the gluten-free status.
Companies change product ingredients at will, generally without notice. The product label will reflect any ingredient changes. Most companies will refer you to the ingredient list found on the product for the most up to date information. A published list (on paper or electronic form) is only as accurate as its most recent update.
Reading the label. Finally!
- Look for a third-party gluten-free certification mark - like GFCO's.
- Gluten-Free Certification Organization requires all finished products and individual ingredients using the GFCO logo contain 10 parts per million or less of gluten.
- Know your certification organizations. When companies mark their products as GF it may appear as if they are actually certified. It might simply be a logo from their marketing or package design department.
- Read the ingredient list. Yes, even certified products. If you see any of following ingredients, the product is not gluten-free.
- Wheat (including durum, spelt, emmer, farina, farro, einkorn)
- Oats (unless certified gluten-free)
- Brewer's Yeast
- Ingredients needing verification:
- Yeast Extract - this could be a by-product of the beer brewing process. Verify with manufacturer in non-GF labeled products.
- Vinegar - FDA defines the single word "vinegar" to mean apple cider vinegar. However through the certification process, GFCO has encountered some usages of malt vinegar labeled as "vinegar". Remember barley/malt is not required to be disclosed. Not a large area of concern, but if you are unfamiliar with a manufacturer or product, it might be a good idea to inquire about the source of their vinegar. Better safe than sorry.
- USDA Products - Products are not required to comply with FDA's FALCPA regulations. If you see a "Contains" statement (or some other wording) that a package is complying with FALCPA, you know wheat must be declared. If you do not see a "Contains" statement, you'll need to verify the source of these ingredients (they could come from wheat):
- Food Starch
- Modified Food Starch
You’ve made it! I hope I’ve increased your knowledge on this multi-layered subject.
04/15/18 - Added AllergicLiving.com article from Gina Clowes
This question has been asked countless times over the years. Until now, we have not had any concrete answers.
All too often the gluten-free community runs into restaurants using the same deep frier for gluten items and their gluten-free items. Of course, we know this practice is not acceptable for those requiring truly gluten-free foods, but the uneducated think otherwise.
This study appearing at the International Celiac Symposium 2017 India, shows it's quite difficult to destroy gluten with temperatures used in customary cooking methods. And when it is destroyed, it's not safe to eat [not that gluten is safe to eat in its uncarbonized state...]
Rodriguez Herrera A2, Garcia Sanchez M2, Lamprea Moruno M2, Monje J3, Comino I1
1 Facultad de Farmacia, Spain, 2 IHP Group, Spain, 3 Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain
Verify effective elimination of Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIP) by home cooking techniques.
Batches of samples of gluten containing flour, potatoes, and potatoes plus flour matched to controls were tested. Each batch was cooked in laboratory by use of electric stove, gas stove, oil deep fryer, induction stove and water bath and was cooked at temperature range from 91-233°C (196-452 F) for 5 up to 30 minutes. GIP content was tested by GlutenTox® Sticks (KT- 5340 Biomedal Diagnostics) based on antibody G12.
On gas stove was necessary to keep 233 °C (451 °F) for 10 minutes to have absence of GIP detection.
In range 190-200°C (374-392°F) incubation for 30 minutes was needed to have absence of GIP detection. Tests in temperatures below 190°C (374°F) showed presence of GIP at 10 and 20 minutes.
On induction stove temperature up to 246°C (475°F) for 6 minutes was needed to have negativity to GIP.
Lower temperature ranges in spite of extended time up to 30 minutes were unable to get negative GIP. In oven processing never was got negative GIP signal, in spite of processing up to 210°C (410°F) and extended incubation time up to 45 minutes.
Samples processed on electric stove, water bath and deep frying showed presence of GIP in all ranges of time and temperature.
It is not realistic the elimination of gluten (GIP) at home kitchen by heat as temperatures higher that 200°C (392°F) are needed. Extended processing time is no compatible with conventional recipes. Fat processing over 200 is link with toxic metabolites generation which may be harmful. Use of oven or deep frying without proper cleaning may transfer GIP to meals when previously gluten containing meals were processed in these appliances.
Some turkeys are not gluten-free. Always check the ingredient list! If you are unsure, call the manufacturer and ask questions.
Be aware that the US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) regulates labeling for meat, poultry, egg products. USDA regulations for labeling allergens [like wheat] are not the same as the FDA regulations. Companies may voluntarily comply with FDA regs, but they are not required to disclose wheat, or barley, rye, or oats or any derivatives.
If you are making a turkey for a gluten-free guest, please read our Guide to Gluten Cross Contamination. They'll love you even more!
If this is your first gluten-free holiday season, you might check out our Navigating The Holidays article for some hints and tips.
"For many, the holiday season is filled with smiles, laughter and lots of merriment. However, for those with dietary restrictions, it can be the complete opposite – fear, dread and lots of worriment."
Looking for some holiday recipes?
Check out some of our favorites.
Gluten-Free Holiday Dinner Guide - complete with a few recipes!
INCREDIBLY EASY GLUTEN FREE TURKEY GUIDENeed to prepare a gluten-free holiday dinner? Butterball can help! Our Butterball fresh and frozen raw unstuffed turkeys are always gluten-free, and our gravy pack included with our Butterball Whole and Boneless Breast items is also gluten-free. And for all the trimmings, check out the recipes below to find a variety of gluten-free side dishes and desserts sure to please all your holiday guests. For a detailed explanation on our gluten-free products, visit Are Butterball Turkeys Gluten Free on our Frequently Asked Questions Page.Q: ARE BUTTERBALL TURKEYS GLUTEN FREE?A: All of the Butterball products are gluten free except for Butterball Stuffed Turkey (bread stuffing) and Butterball Frozen Meatballs. For our products that are packaged with gravy packets, the gravy packets are gluten free as well. The gravy contains rice flour instead of wheat flour and the modified food starch is corn based.
Gluten-Free Butterball Turkeys:
Fresh L'il Butterball
Frozen Whole Turkey
Frozen L'il Butterball
Frozen Fully Cooked Smoked Turkey
Frozen Fully Cooked Baked Turkey
Butterball lists several gluten free products on their website. Type type "gluten-free" into their "Search for a product" text box and click Search
Do your hams or turkey breast contain glutens?
Do your hams or turkey breast contain glutens? Our hams and turkey breasts DO NOT contain glutens.
Honeysuckle White Whole Turkeys:
Fully Cooked Oven Roasted Whole Turkey
Fresh Whole Turkey
Frozen Whole Turkey
Oven Roasted Fully Cooked All Vegetarian/No Antibiotics Ever Whole Turkey
All Vegetarian Fed/No Antibiotics Ever Fresh Whole Turkey
Frozen All Vegetarian Fed/No Antibiotics Ever Whole Turkey
Bone-in Turkey Breasts:
Frozen Bone-In Turkey Breast with Gravy (Gravy made with rice flour)
Fully Cooked Hickory Smoked Bone-In Turkey Breast
Bone-In Turkey Breast
Honeysuckle While offers several gluten-free products, however, you have to check each product.
Jenni-O is a Hormel Company. Hormel will clearly gluten (wheat, barley/malt, rye, oats).
Although our products are labeled in compliance with government regulations, we believe the best practice is for you to read the labels on the products to determine if the food product meets your required needs. Parents and individuals with food allergies and/or food intolerances are responsible for reading the label of all products they intend to use regardless of how the product is represented on this site. To help those dealing with gluten sensitivity or allergies, we have a provided a list detailing the wide range of products we offer that are gluten-free.If you have any questions we would to talk to you. Please call our Customer Service Representatives at 1-800-523-4635 or submit your question online.
Hormel's Gluten-Free List (See Jenni-O Brand)
Tender & Juicy Young Turkey (Gravy packet contains gluten)
Fresh All Natural Young Turkey
Premium Fresh Young Turkey
Smoked Whole Turkey
Premium Fresh All Natural RWOA Young Turkey
Oven Roasted Whole Turkey
Extra Lean Turkey Breast Cutlets
Extra Lean Boneless Turkey Breast Tenderloins
Extra Lean Oven Roasted Turkey Breast
Extra Lean Hickory Smoked Turkey Breast
OVEN READY™ Bone-In Turkey Breast
OVEN READY™ Boneless Turkey Breast
Turkey Breast Roast
Tender & Juicy Young Turkey Breast
Oven Roasted Turkey Breast
Smoked Turkey Breast
Cajun Style Turkey Breast
Split Turkey Breasts
Jennie-O has many items on their gluten-free list.
Gluten-free products from website using their Filters. See Preferences in the left side bar - select Gluten-Free.
• HARVESTLAND® ORGANIC CHICKEN & APPLE SAUSAGE
• HARVESTLAND® ORGANIC GLUTEN FREE GRILLED CHICKEN BREAST STRIPS
• HARVESTLAND® ORGANIC ITALIAN STYLE CHICKEN SAUSAGE
• HARVESTLAND® ORGANIC SPINACH CHICKEN SAUSAGE
• INDIVIDUALLY FROZEN BONELESS, SKINLESS CHICKEN BREASTS (3 LBS.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, GRILLED FAJITA STYLE (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, ROTISSERIE SEASONED, (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, GRILLED (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, GRILLED FAJITA STYLE, (26 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, GRILLED ITALIAN STYLE (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, GRILLED, (16 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, HONEY ROASTED (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, ORIGINAL ROASTED (26 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, ORIGINAL ROASTED (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED CHICKEN BREAST, SOUTHWESTERN STYLE (9 OZ.)
• SHORT CUTS® CARVED TURKEY BREAST, OVEN ROASTED (8 OZ.)
• SIMPLY SMART® BREADED CHICKEN BREAST TENDERS, GLUTEN FREE (22 OZ.), FROZEN
• SIMPLY SMART® GLUTEN FREE BREADED CHICKEN BREAST TENDERS (11.2 OZ.)
• SIMPLY SMART® LEMON AND HERB CHICKEN STRIPS (8 OZ.)
• SIMPLY SMART® LIGHTLY BREADED CHICKEN NUGGETS - GLUTEN FREE
Perdue has many GFCO Certified products. You can find them on GFCO's Certified Product List - January 2017 PDF Format
Should you have further questions, please feel free to contact a consumer representative at 1-800-473-7383 Monday through Friday 9:30 AM to 6:00 PM ET, or email us at www.Perdue.com.
Is your turkey gluten free?Yes, our turkey is gluten free and casein free. However, our turkey gravy and our homestyle dressing contain wheat. Our marinated teriyaki turkey tenderloins contain soy. Please read the ingredients labels.
Frozen Hotel-Style Bone-In Turkey Breast
Hotel-Style Bone-In Turkey Breast
Bone-In Turkey Breast (3% Basted)
Bone-In Turkey Breast (0% Basted)
An extensive list of companies
By now, you’ve probably heard the news about the Catholic Church invalidating the use of gluten-free hosts for the sacrament of Holy Communion.
This news has riled up many in the gluten-free community.
It's nothing new and it has been this way for a long time. In the Catholic Church, it is impossible to consecrate anything other than wine (or mustum) and a host made of wheat and water. No priest or bishop can change 2,000 years of tradition and faith.
According to "Celiac Disease and Eucharistic Communion" by Anne Bamberg. The Jurist, 2003, 2001 (61), pp.281-289., the debate began in the 1970s. The large celiac populations of Ireland and Great Britain began asking questions of the Church.
Note from Al: I found Anne Bamberg's article very interesting. I highly recommend it. She describes celiac disease very well and shares some interesting insights into the Catholic faith.
The use of low/no gluten hosts has been reviewed by the Vatican several times over the years.
In 1995, then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, takes up the subject in his June 19th letter to the Conference of Bishops.
The Cardinal, again validates low-gluten hosts - invalidates the use of gluten-free hosts. He also states:
"Given the centrality of the celebration of the Eucharist in the life of the priest, candidates for the priesthood who are affected by celiac disease or suffer from alcoholism or similar conditions may not be admitted to holy orders."
Yes, this means someone with celiac disease could not be an ordained priest. The Supreme Pontiff did not approve Cardinal Ratzinger's letter as it failed to seek out a favorable solution for sick or disabled persons.
In 2001, then five-year-old Jenny Richardson and her parents made national headlines for leaving the Catholic Church after Cardinal Bernard Law denied her a rice wafer for her First Communion.
In 2003, then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (served as Pope from 2005 to 2013), once again revisits the topic…
In 2004, eight-year old Haley Waldman of New Jersey, had her First Communion declared invalid because a rice based wafer was used.
As one would imagine, low-gluten (not gluten-free) hosts would be a hot topic for the gluten-free community. The question becomes, how much gluten is in a low-gluten host?
When the Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration first created their Low-Gluten Altar Breads, Dr. Alessio Fasano helped test the wafers in 2004. They tested at 100 parts per million. This is 5x more than the FDA currently allows for a gluten-free product.
Ten years later, in 2014, independent testing organization Gluten-Free Watchdog was asked by a subscribing member to test the Benedictine Sisters Low-Gluten wafers. Below are the results…
Gluten-Free Watchdog graciously granted GIG of ECW permission to share the testing results.
Thank you, GFWD for your hard work and dedication to the gluten-free community!
If you're not a subscriber, please consider becoming a member.
As GFWD points out, parts per million is a ratio. It tells us the amount of gluten per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of food. Knowing the amount of food eaten will determine how much gluten has been consumed.
Yes, they contain more than 20 ppm - 50 ppm and 63 ppm for their respective samples. Nope, not gluten-free by FDA standards, hence the name - low-gluten.
Testing reveals that a wafer weighs about 33 milligrams and contains .0019 milligrams of gluten.
Gluten-Free Watchdog provides a nice comparative:
A one-ounce slice of gluten-free bread (if it contained 19 ppm of gluten aka gluten-free according to FDA regulations) would contain roughly 0.57 milligrams of gluten.
That slice of GF bread could contain 300 times more gluten than one Low-Gluten Communion wafer.
On July 10th, 2017, two days after the Vatican issued their statement, The Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration in Clyde, Missouri issued their own statement regarding their wafers.
You may have noticed above I bolded "A test done in 2016 indicated the gluten content was even more minimal - less than .001 percent" .
I completely missed that upon my first read through. It's a very important sentence to the gluten-free community. The Sisters use decimal percentage numbers in their communiques instead of parts per million. For those "mathematically challenged" individuals (yeah, that's me alright!), it doesn't sink in too well.
If we do the math (What?!?! I was told there'd be no math!), we find that .001% of gluten is really…drumroll please…10 parts per million. TA DA!
On July 18th, Center for Celiac Research and Treatment issued their response in a video.
As I was watching this "disturbance in the force" play out, I was becoming more and more disheartened. People were upset with the Church, people were upset with organized religion in general. I was seeing a lot of stone casting, but no one focused on "How much gluten constitutes a low-gluten wafer?"
Making choices about ones diet is a personal matter. Factor in a spiritual practice, and it complicates the matter exponentially.
If you're not the religious type, this situation may not make much sense to you. That's fine, this is not your issue to tackle. Please feel free to move on to a more suitable topic.
If you are the religious type, particularly Catholic, this situation was likely to induce some level of stress.
Sometimes, difficult decisions must be made. I share these facts neither in-favor-of nor opposition-to, but in an effort to help others make an informed decision.
We now know a low-gluten wafer contains magnitudes less gluten than a slice of gluten-free bread.
We now know the wafers from The Benedictine Sisters might very well qualify for GFCO certification (made in a dedicated GF facility and less than 10 parts per million of gluten).
I hope these facts make it easier for someone to reconcile this conundrum.
Alan Klapperich - Branch Manager
GiG of East Central Wisconsin